Energy efficiency and rational use of energy are the two pillars of the energy savings. For energy efficiency means reducing the use of primary energy.

The rational use of energy, however, consist in rationalize the use of energy needed, thus minimizing the consumption and supply costs.

The energy efficiency measures are applied in many areas, of which the main, traceable especially in urban settings, are construction, lighting, heating systems and appliances.

In the wide panorama of these measures, one of the tools available to achieve positive results, in the environmental field but not only are the smart grid, ie two-way power grids able to intelligently link the acts of all connected users, both producers both consumers, thus allowing sharing of energy in an efficient, sustainable, cost-effective and secure.

These networks combine innovative products and services to smart monitoring technology, control, communication, self-healing, to ensure the connection and operation of heterogeneous electric generators and to equip consumers with tools and power.

Also they constitute a valid system to reduce the environmental impact of the electricity system and at the same time they increase the reliability and safety, avoiding congestion by providing real-time information to all users. This is therefore a strong novelty compared to traditional power networks that carry the energy unidirectionally, from large power plants to a large number of customers-consumers with a centralized control.

By contrast, the two-way networks provide the ability to become customers-consumers to all manufacturers effects, feeding into the grid the energy produced in their homes. In fact, the smart grid are able to integrate the network centralized power generation and widespread and provide interconnection with other service networks and power flows.

In the light of these considerations, it is clear that these technologies are a key pillar for the development of the green economy and also an innovative and sustainable solutions for cities.